National State of the Environment Reports are key informational products based on environmental indicators allowing to assess current ecological situation and corresponding future trends.
Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country extremely vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic impacts. Presently, it is going through a complicated phase of transition to market economy. The economic development policy should account not only for social but also environmental factors.
The Agenda XXI contains an appeal to individual countries and international community at large to forge sustainable development indicators. In order to prevent and/or eliminate negative anthropogenic impact on the nature and to create normal human habitat, first, there is a need for reliable, objective and timely ecological evaluation. The corresponding indicators should serve to draw attention to sustainable development challenges and assist concerned agencies of all management levels in making reasonable environmentally significant decisions with the account of ecological issues and “green development” policies.
While assessing the state of the environment and the effectiveness of environmental protective measures it is important to work with objective and up-to-date analytical data accessible to both government bodies and the public.
National state of the environment reports (NSoERs) are key national informational products. Ecological indicators on which such reports are based, are the main tools of environmental assessment, reporting and policy-making. Drafting of regular national reports improves collection of ecological data and environmental reporting as well as stimulates compatibility of ecological statistical data and indicators from different countries.
At the 6th Ministerial Conference “Environment for Europe” (Belgrade, October 10-12, 2007) environmental protection ministers of EECCA countries approved the Guidelines for the Preparation of Indicator-Based Assessment Reports drafted by the Working Group on Environmental Monitoring and Assessment of the UNECE Committee on Environmental Policy.
The Guidelines follow the approaches applied within pan-European environmental assessment reports, including the common DPSIR (driving forces-pressures-states-impacts-responses) analytical framework used by the European Environment Agency (EEA).
In 2012, together with the NSC and other concerned ministries and agencies and with the assistance of the UNDP/UNEP Poverty and Environment Project the SAEPF drafted the indicator-based National State of the Environment Report of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2006-2011.
The 2006-2011 National State of the Environment Report of the Kyrgyz Republic had been approved by Resolution of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic №553 of August 7, 2012.
As per Resolution, the State Agency for Environmental Protection and Forestry (SAEPF) with the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic (KR) shall submit NSoERs to the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic every 3 years before July 1 of the year following the reporting year.
The ministries and agencies of the KR shall submit to the SAEPF with the Government of the KR materials necessary for the production of regular NSoERs of the Kyrgyz Republic before April 1 of the year following the reporting year.
The next Kyrgyzstan National State of the Environment Report will be issued in 2015.
About the NSoER
On the website, you can download the PDF version of the 2006-2011 National State of the Environment Report of the Kyrgyz Republic with the analysis of the current environmental situation in Kyrgyzstan based on corresponding environmental indicators: air pollution and ozone depletion, climate change, water resources, biodiversity, land resources, agriculture, energy, transport, and waste.
The Kyrgyz Republic is a sovereign multiethnic state located in the center of the Eurasian continent in the Tien Shan and Pamir-Altay Mountains between 39º and 43º northern latitude and 69º and 80º eastern longitude. Its total borderline is 4,508 km. Kyrgyzstan borders on Kazakhstan in the north (1113 km), Uzbekistan in the west (1374 km), Tajikistan in the south (972 km), and the People's Republic of China in the east and southeast (1049 km).
The Kyrgyz Republic consists of 7 regions (see Figure 1.), 40 districts, 25 cities, 28 urban settlements, and 440 ail aymaks.
Figure 1. Administrative and territorial map of the Kyrgyz Republic
Kyrgyzstan’s territory is 199,900 km2, nearly 90% of which is above 1,500 m. The highest point in the country is the Pobeda (rus. Victory) Peak (7,439 m).
As of January 1, 2011, Kyrgyzstan’s resident population amounted to 5,478,000 people with 49.4% males and 50.6% females. More than one third of the population (or 34%) lives in urban settlements and about two thirds (or 66%) – in rural areas. The average population density is 27 persons per square kilometer. The Chu Region and the City of Bishkek (national capital) represent the most densely populated areas hosting nearly one third of the total country’s population (859,800 people or more than 80 persons per square kilometer). More than 100 various ethnic groups live within the national borders.
Kyrgyzstan is unique due to its rather extreme climatic conditions and high vulnerability of its mountainous ecosystems. Prevalence of severely rugged relief creates special living conditions in the foothills, plains and valleys where most settlements concentrate. Based on bioclimatic zoning, 4 mln people (79%) live in comfortable life sustenance areas (17%). 1 mln people (19%) live in so-called relative or compensated comfort areas (19%) at the altitude from 1,500 to 2,200 meters. The remaining 2% of the national population live at the altitude exceeding 2,200 meters in uncompensated conditions of bioclimatic comfort.
In 2011, the country’s production GDP was estimated at the level of 273,107.8 mln som (5.7% increase compared to 2010). In 2010, the GDP per capita amounted to $922.6. The preliminary data for 2011 demonstrated its growth up to $1130.7.